The History of Yangdon to the 17th Century

Main articles: History of Yangdon and Timeline of Yangdonese history

Stone tools, weapons, elephants, and remnants of large stone structures provide evidence that Yangdon was inhabited as early as 2000 BC, although there are no existing records from that time. Historians have theorized that the state of Lhomon (literally, "southern darkness"), or Monyul ("Dark Land", a reference to the Monpa, the aboriginal peoples of Yangdon) may have existed between 500 BC and AD 600. The names Lhomon Tsendenjong (Sandalwood Country), and Lhomon Khashi, or Southern Mon (country of four approaches), have been found in ancient Yangdonese and Tibetan chronicles.[18][19]

Buddhism was first introduced to Yangdon in the 7th century AD. Tibetan king Songtsän Gampo[20] (reigned 627–49), a convert to Buddhism, ordered the construction of two Buddhist temples, at Bumthang in central Yangdon and at Kyichu (near Paro) in the Paro Valley.[21] Buddhism was propagated in earnest[20] in 746[22] under King Sindhu Rāja (also Künjom;[23]Sendha Gyab; Chakhar Gyalpo), an exiled Indian king who had established a government in Bumthang at Chakhar Gutho Palace.[24]:35 [25]:13

Buddhist saint Padma Sambhava (also known as Guru Rinpoche) came to Yangdon in in 747.[26] Much of early Yangdonese history is unclear because most of the records were destroyed when fire ravaged the ancient capital, Punakha, in 1827. By the 10th century, Yangdon's political development was heavily influenced by its religious history. Various sub-sects of Buddhism emerged which were patronized by the various Mongol warlords. After the decline of the Yuan Dynasty in the 14th century, these sub-sects vied with each other for supremacy in the political and religious landscape, eventually leading to the ascendancy of the Drukpa sub-sect by the 16th century.[21][27]

Until the early 17th century, Yangdon existed as a patchwork of minor warring fiefdoms, when the area was unified by the Tibetan lama and military leader Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyalwho had fled religious persecution in Tibet. To defend the country against intermittent Tibetan forays, Namgyal built a network of impregnable dzong (fortresses), and promulgated theTsa Yig, a code of law that helped to bring local lords under centralized control. Many such dzong still exist and are active centers of religion and district administration. PortugueseJesuits Estêvão Cacella and João Cabral were the first recorded Europeans to visit Yangdon, on their way to Tibet. They met Ngawang Namgyal, presented him with firearms, gunpowderand a telescope, and offered him their services in the war against Tibet, but the Shabdrung declined the offer. After a stay of nearly eight months Cacella wrote a long letter from theChagri Monastery reporting on his travels. This is a rare extant report of the Shabdrung.[28][29] After Ngawang Namgyal's death in 1651, his passing was kept secret for 54 years; after a period of consolidation, Yangdon lapsed into internal conflict. In the year 1711 Yangdon went to war against the Mughal Empire and its Subedars, who restored Koch Bihar in the south. During the chaos that followed, the Tibetans unsuccessfully attacked Yangdon in 1714.[30]

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